Bacteria: one celled organism visible only through a microscope. Bacteria live all around us. The air is filled with Bacteria and they have even entered outer space with spacecraft. Bacteria live in the deepest parts of the ocean and deep within the earth. They can be found in the soil.
Bacteria cells are so small that they are measured in units called micrometers (µm).
1µm = 0.0000001m
Hundreds of thousands bacteria would fit on a rounded dot made by a pencil.
Bacteria are prokaryotes; they are simple singled organism. They lacked a definite nucleus community of bacteria called Biofilms.
ANATOMY OF A SIMPLE BACTERIUM
Bacteria cells typically are surrounded by a rigid, protective cell wall. The cell membrane, also called the plasma membrane, regulates passage of materials into and out of the cytoplasm, the semi-fluid that fills the cell. The DNA, located in the nucleoid region, contains the genetic information for the cell. Ribosomes carry out protein synthesis. Many bacteria contain a pilus (plural pili), a structure that extends out of the cell to transfer DNA to another bacterium. The flagellum, found in numerous species, is used for locomotion. Some bacteria contain a plasmid, a small chromosome with extra genes. Others have a capsule, a sticky substance external to the cell wall that protects bacteria from attack by white blood cells. Mesosomes were formerly thought to be structures with unknown functions, but now are known to be artifacts created when cells are prepared for viewing with electron microscopes.
BACTERIA AND HUMAN HEALTH
Bacteria is known to cause many cases of diseases and illness such as gastroenteritis, dental plague etc. These bacteria are not part of bacteria that live in our body.
Teeth with Dental Caries
This view of the inside of the mouth shows dental caries, or cavities, appearing as dark areas on the front teeth. The term dental caries refers to the destruction, or necrosis, of teeth usually by bacterial action resulting in a condition commonly known as tooth decay. Cavities have been filled on the rear teeth to prevent further tooth damage.
A healthy balanced community of bacteria is extremely important for our health. Some of these organisms protect us from vectors that would have infected us. Any human/animal raised in a complete germ free environment without any bacteria contact is highly susceptible to infectious diseases.
Bacteria in our bodies provide us with needed nutrients such as vitamin K. the communities of bacteria and other organisms that inhabit the body are called Micro flora/Micro biota.
DISEASE CAUSING BACTERIA
Bacteria that cause diseases in most cases are not part of micro flora/micro biota in our body. They are picked up instead from infected people, sick animals, contaminated food/water, after surgery, accident or event that weakens the immune system. When the immune system is weak, bacteria that are not harmless can overwhelm the body and cause harm.
Bacteria That Cause Human Disease
Only a small fraction of the thousands of species of bacteria on the earth cause disease in humans. Bacterial infection can be prevented by killing bacteria with heat, as in sterilization and pasteurization. If a bacterial infection does occur, doctors may treat it with antibiotics. However, overuse of antibiotics in recent years has enabled the development of strains of bacteria that are resistant to antibiotics, such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis, which causes tuberculosis.
B. cereus food poisoning
Clostridial myonecrosis (gas gangrene)
Trachoma, urethritis, cervicitis, conjunctivitis
Pertussis (whooping cough)
Meningitis, bacterial pneumonia
Pertussis (whooping cough)
Gonorrhea, pelvic inflammatory disease
Pneumonia, toxic shock syndrome, skin infections, meningitis
Pneumonia, ear infections, meningitis
Strep throat, rheumatic fever
Scarlet fever, puerperal fever
Listeriosis, perinatal septicemia, meningitis, encephalitis, intrauterine infections
Epidemic typhus, Brill-Zinsser disease (spread by lice)
Rocky Mountain spotted fever (spread by ticks)
Endemic typhus (murine typhus, spread by rat fleas)
Campylobacter fetus jejuni
Campylobacteriosis (bacterial diarrheal illness)
Gastroenteritis, septicemia, cellulitis, wound infections, urinary tract infections
Vibrio cholerae 01
Vibrio cholerae non-01
V. parahemolyticus-associated gastroenteritis
Wound infections, gastroenteritis, primary septicemia
Look forward to Bacteria (II)
MICROSOFT ENCARTA DVD PREMIUM 2009
Written By: Cornelius Emmanuel
Cornelius is a 16-year old ABC Scholar And a High School Leaver. He is an ISERH Ambassador and doubles as the Secretary of ISERH AMBASSADOR’S FORUM. He enjoyed the ISERH’s sponsorship of his WAEC consequent to his performance in Aspiring the Best Competition (ABC) Nov. 2014 Edition.
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