CAC/IT/No 78985

Bacteria: one celled organism visible only through a microscope. Bacteria live all around us. The air is filled with Bacteria and they have even entered outer space with spacecraft. Bacteria live in the deepest parts of the ocean and deep within the earth. They can be found in the soil.

Bacteria cells are so small that they are measured in units called micrometers (µm).

1µm = 0.0000001m
Hundreds of thousands bacteria would fit on a rounded dot made by a pencil.

Bacteria are prokaryotes; they are simple singled organism. They lacked a definite nucleus community of bacteria called Biofilms.

ANATOMY OF A SIMPLE BACTERIUM

Bacteria cells typically are surrounded by a rigid, protective cell wall. The cell membrane, also called the plasma membrane, regulates passage of materials into and out of the cytoplasm, the semi-fluid that fills the cell. The DNA, located in the nucleoid region, contains the genetic information for the cell. Ribosomes carry out protein synthesis. Many bacteria contain a pilus (plural pili), a structure that extends out of the cell to transfer DNA to another bacterium. The flagellum, found in numerous species, is used for locomotion. Some bacteria contain a plasmid, a small chromosome with extra genes. Others have a capsule, a sticky substance external to the cell wall that protects bacteria from attack by white blood cells. Mesosomes were formerly thought to be structures with unknown functions, but now are known to be artifacts created when cells are prepared for viewing with electron microscopes.

BACTERIA AND HUMAN HEALTH

Bacteria is known to cause many cases of diseases and illness such as gastroenteritis, dental plague etc. These bacteria are not part of bacteria that live in our body.

Teeth with Dental Caries

This view of the inside of the mouth shows dental caries, or cavities, appearing as dark areas on the front teeth. The term dental caries refers to the destruction, or necrosis, of teeth usually by bacterial action resulting in a condition commonly known as tooth decay. Cavities have been filled on the rear teeth to prevent further tooth damage.

A healthy balanced community of bacteria is extremely important for our health. Some of these organisms protect us from vectors that would have infected us. Any human/animal raised in a complete germ free environment without any bacteria contact is highly susceptible to infectious diseases.

Bacteria in our bodies provide us with needed nutrients such as vitamin K. the communities of bacteria and other organisms that inhabit the body are called Micro flora/Micro biota.

DISEASE CAUSING BACTERIA

Bacteria that cause diseases in most cases are not part of micro flora/micro biota in our body. They are picked up instead from infected people, sick animals, contaminated food/water, after surgery, accident or event that weakens the immune system. When the immune system is weak, bacteria that are not harmless can overwhelm the body and cause harm.

Bacteria That Cause Human Disease

Only a small fraction of the thousands of species of bacteria on the earth cause disease in humans. Bacterial infection can be prevented by killing bacteria with heat, as in sterilization and pasteurization. If a bacterial infection does occur, doctors may treat it with antibiotics. However, overuse of antibiotics in recent years has enabled the development of strains of bacteria that are resistant to antibiotics, such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis, which causes tuberculosis.

Bacterium Disease
Bacillus
Bacillus anthracis
Anthrax
Bacillus cereus
B. cereus food poisoning
Clostridium botulinum
Botulism
Clostridium perfringens
Clostridial myonecrosis (gas gangrene)
Clostridium tetani
Tetanus (lockjaw)
Corynebacterium diphtheriae
Diphtheria
Escherichia coli
Diarrhea
Klebsiella pneumoniae
Bronchopneumonia
Legionella pneumophila
Legionnaire's disease
Mycobacterium leprae
Leprosy
Mycobacterium tuberculosis

Tuberculosis
Salmonella species
Salmonella
Salmonella typhi

Typhoid fever
Salmonella typhimurium
Salmonella gastroenteritis
Shigella dysenteriae

Bacillary dysentery
Shigella species
Shigellosis
Yersinia enterocolitica
Yersiniosis, gastroenteritis
Yersinia pestis

Plague
Yersinia pseudotuberculosis
Mesenteric lymphadenitis
Chlamydia
Chlamydia trachomatis
Trachoma, urethritis, cervicitis, conjunctivitis
Coccobacillus
Bordetella pertussis
Pertussis (whooping cough)
Brucella species
Undulant fever
Hemophilus influenzae
Meningitis, bacterial pneumonia
Hemophilus pertussis
Pertussis (whooping cough)
Coccus
Neisseria gonorrhoeae
Gonorrhea, pelvic inflammatory disease
Neisseria meningitidis
Meningitis
Staphylococcus aureus
   
Pneumonia, toxic shock syndrome, skin infections, meningitis
Streptococcus pneumonia
Pneumonia, ear infections, meningitis
Streptococcus pyogenes
Strep throat, rheumatic fever
Streptococcus species
Scarlet fever, puerperal fever
Listeria
Listeria monocytogenes
Listeriosis, perinatal septicemia, meningitis, encephalitis, intrauterine infections
Mycoplasma
Mycoplasma pneumoniae

Pneumonia
Rickettsia
Rickettsia prowazekii
Epidemic typhus, Brill-Zinsser disease (spread by lice)

Rickettsia rickettsii
Rocky Mountain spotted fever (spread by ticks)
Rickettsia typhi
Endemic typhus (murine typhus, spread by rat fleas)
Spirillus
Campylobacter fetus jejuni
Campylobacteriosis (bacterial diarrheal illness)
Spirillum minor
Rat-bite fever

Spirochete
Treponema pallidum
Syphilis
Vibrio
Aeromonas hydrophila
Gastroenteritis, septicemia, cellulitis, wound infections, urinary tract infections
Plesiomonas shigelloides

Gastroenteritis, diarrhea
Vibrio cholerae 01
Epidemic cholera
Vibrio cholerae non-01
Gastroenteritis
Vibrio parahemolyticus
V. parahemolyticus-associated gastroenteritis
Vibrio vulnificus
Wound infections, gastroenteritis, primary septicemia

Look forward to Bacteria (II)

REFERENCES
MICROSOFT ENCARTA DVD PREMIUM 2009

Written By: Cornelius Emmanuel
Cornelius is a 16-year old ABC Scholar And a High School Leaver. He is an ISERH Ambassador and doubles as the Secretary of ISERH AMBASSADOR’S FORUM. He enjoyed the ISERH’s sponsorship of his WAEC consequent to his performance in Aspiring the Best Competition (ABC) Nov. 2014 Edition.

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